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Araya YN, Schmiedel U, von Witt C (2009): Linking ‘citizen scientists’ to professionals in ecological research, examples from Namibia and South Africa. Conservation Evidence 6: 11-17. PDF (280 KB)

Basset Y, Novotny V, Miller SE, Pyle R (2000): Quantifying biodiversity: Experience with parataxonomists and digital photography in Papua New Guinea and Guyana. BioScience 50, No. 10: 899-908. PDF

Basset Y, Novotny V, Miller SE, Weiblen GD, Missa O, Stewart AJA (2004): Conservation and biological monitoring of tropical forests: the role of parataxonomists. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 163-174. PDF

Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF (Editor) (2008): Biodiversität in Afrika: Die andere Perspektive. Biodiversity in Africa: The other perspective. La biodiversité en Afrique: Un autre point de vue. 33 pp. PDF

Christiaan, R (2005): Spinnekop Navorsing Begin. Namakwa Nasionale Park Nuusbrief 4 (2), p 17. PDF

Christiaan, R (2008): Nuwe navorsing onderweg in Matzikama. Ons Kontrei (4 April 2008), p. 2. PDF

Christiaan, R (2012): Skerpioene van die mediese belang in Suid Afrika. Die VeePos, Maart 2012, p 5. PDF

Christiaan R, Kotze D (2007): Para-ekoloe in jou omgewing.  Die Namakwalander, p 3. PDF

Christiaan R, Schmiedel U (2016): Schatzinseln im Namaqualand. Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten 67: 93 - 98. PDF (1 MB)

​ Dolch R, Ndriamiary J-N, Ratolojanahary T, Randrianasolo M, Ramanantenasoa IA. (2015): Improving livelihoods, training paraecologists, enthralling children: Earning trust for effective community-based biodiversity conservation in Andasibe, eastern Madagascar. Madagascar Conservation & Development 10: 21-28 PDF

Gamez R (1991): Biodiversity conservation through facilitation of its sustainable use - Costa Rica`s National Biodiversity Institute. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6:377-378.

Genis A (2008): Navorsing betrek plaaslike mense.  Landbouweekblad, pp 34-35. PDF (414 KB)

Gewin V (2002): All living things, online. Can taxonomy shed its dusty image and reinvent itself as a vibrant discipline for the Internet age? Virginia Gewin talks to the pioneers who are trying to turn this vision into reality. Nature 418: 362-363. PDF

Goldstein PZ (2004): Systematic collection data in North American invertebrate conservation and monitoring programmes. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 175-180. PDF on request.

Hajkova Z (2006): Lokales Wissen nutzen. Junge Afrikaner erforschen als "Para-Ecologists" die Biodiversität. Yousee. Das Magazin der Universität Hamburg 4_2006: 36-37. PDF (406 KB)

Hambleton A (1994): A survey of United States Government funded activities supporting biodiversity research and conservation in Costa Rica. United States Agency for International Development. Pages 1-91. PDF (2 MB)

Hilario, Miguel S. (2013): Cusseque - Para-ecologist Miguel Sachilula Hilario. In: Oldeland, J., Erb, C., Finckh, M. & Jürgens, N. (2013) [Eds.]: Environmental Assessments in the Okavango Region. - Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 81–82. DOI: 10.7809/b-e.00251. PDF (1,7 MB)

Janzen DH (1991): How to Save Tropical Biodiversity: The National Biodiversity Institute of Costa Rica. American Entomologist 37: 159-171. PDF (2.038 KB)

Janzen DH (1998): Gardenification of wildland nature and the human footprint. Science 279:1312-1313.

Janzen DH (1999): Sobrevivencia de las areas silvestres de Costa Rica por medio de su jardinificacion. Ciencias Ambientales 16: 8-18. Text

Janzen DH (2000): Wildlands as gardens. National Parks Magazine 74:50-51.

Janzen D (2004): Setting up tropical biodiversity for conservation through non-damaging use: participation by parataxonomists. Journal of Applied Ecology 41: 181-187. PDF

Janzen D (2010): Hope for Tropical Biodiversity through True Bioliteracy. Biotropica 42: 540-542. PDF

Janzen DH, Hallwachs W (1992): Training parataxonomists for Costa Rica’s national biodiversity inventory: the experiences of the first predominantly female course (1992). Unpublished Report. PDF

Janzen DH, Hallwachs W (2011): Joining Inventory by Parataxonomists with DNA Barcoding of a Large Complex Tropical Conserved Wildland in Northwestern Costa Rica. PLoS ONE 6 (8): e18123

Janzen, D. H., W. Hallwachs, P. Blandin, J. M. Burns, J.-M. Cadiou, I. Chacon, T. Dapkey, A. R. Deans, M. E. Epstein, B. Espinoza, J. G. Franclemont, W. A. Haber, M. Hajibabaei, J. P. W. Hall, P. D. N. Hebert, I. D. Gauld, D. J. Harvey, A. Hausmann, I. J. Kitching, D. Lafontaine, J.-F. Landry, C. Lemaire, J. Y. Miller, J. S. Miller, L. Miller, S. E. Miller, J. Montero, E. Munroe, S. R. Green, S. Ratnasingham, J. E. Rawlins, R. K. Robbins, J. J. Rodriguez, R. Rougerie, M. J. Sharkey, M. A. Smith, M. A. Solis, J. B. Sullivan, P. Thiaucourt, D. B. Wahl, S. J. Weller, J. B. Whitfield, K. R. Willmott, D. M. Wood, N. E. Woodley, and J. J. Wilson (2009): Integration of DNA barcoding into an ongoing inventory of complex tropical biodiversity. Molecular Ecology Resources 9:1-26.

Janzen, D. H., W. Hallwachs, D. J. Harvey, K. Darrow, R. Rougerie, M. Hajibabaei, M. A. Smith, C. Bertrand, I. Chacon Gamboa, B. Espinoza, J. B. Sullivan, T. Decaens, D. Herbin, L. Felipe Chavarria, R. Franco, H. Cambronero, S. Rios, F. Quesada, G. Pereira, J. Vargas, A. Guadamuz, R. Espinoza, J. Hernandez, L. Rios, E. Cantillano, R. Moraga, C. Moraga, P. Rios, M. Rios, R. Calero, D. Martinez, D. Briceno, M. Carmona, E. Apu, K. Aragon, C. Umana, J. Perez, A. Cordoba, P. Umana, G. Sihezar, O. Espinoza, C. Cano, E. Araya, D. Garcia, H. Ramirez, M. Pereira, J. Cortez, M. Pereira, W. Medina, and P. D. N. Hebert (2012): What happens to the traditional taxonomy when a well-known tropical saturniid moth fauna is DNA barcoded? Invertebrate Systematics 26:478-505.

Janzen DH, Hallwachs W, Jimenez J, Gamez R (1993): The role of the parataxonomists, inventory managers and taxonomists in Costa Rica’s national biodiversity inventory. In: Reid WV, Laird SA, Meyer CA, Gamez R, Sittenfeld A, Janzen DH, Gollin MA, Juma C, eds. Biodiversity Prospecting. Washington, D.C.: World Resources Institute. pp 223–254. PDF

Kwamovo, Meshack (2013): Seronga - Para-ecologist Meshack Kwamovo. In: Oldeland, J., Erb, C., Finckh, M. & Jürgens, N. (2013) [Eds.]: Environmental Assessments in the Okavango Region. - Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 159. DOI: 10.7809/b-e.00271. PDF (1,6 MB)

Kürschner-Pelkmann F (2006): Armutsreduzierung unterstützt Kampf gegen Wüstenausbreitung; Brückenschlag zwischen Wissenschaftlern und Praktikern. eins 10: 10-11. PDF

Lewin R (1988): Costa Rican Biodiversity. Science 242:1637-1637.

Mukuya, Robert S. (2013): Mashare - Para-ecologist Robert Mukuya. ​In: Oldeland, J., Erb, C., Finckh, M. & Jürgens, N. (2013) [Eds.]: Environmental Assessments in the Okavango Region. – Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 129. DOI: 10.7809/b-e.00264.​ PDF (1,5 MB)

Naicker K (2015): What is a para-ecologist? In:

Novotny V (2009): Notebooks from New Guinea. Field Notes of a Tropical Biologist. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Novotny V (2010) Rain Forest Conversation in a Tribal World: Why Forest Dwellers Prefer Loggers to Conservationists. Biotropica 42:546-549.

Novotny V, Basset Y, Miller SE, Allison A, Samuelson GA, Orsak L (1997): The diversity of tropical insect herbivores: an approach to collaborative international research in Papua New Guinea. Proceeding of the International Conference on Taxonomy and Biodiversity Conservation in the East Asia (B. H. Lee, J. C. Choe and H. Y. Han, eds), pp. 112-125. Korean Institute for Biodiversity Research of Chonbuk National University, Chonju. Text

Novotny, V., S. E. Miller, L. Baje, S. Balagawi, Y. Basset, L. Cizek, K. J. Craft, F. Dem, R. A. I. Drew, J. Hulcr, J. Leps, O. T. Lewis, R. Pokon, A. J. A. Stewart, G. A. Samuelson, and G. D. Weiblen (2010): Guild-specific patterns of species richness and host specialization in plant-herbivore food webs from a tropical forest. Journal of Animal Ecology 79:1193-1203.

Novotny, V., S. E. Miller, J. Hulcr, R. A. I. Drew, Y. Basset, M. Janda, G. P. Setliff, K. Darrow, A. J. A. Stewart, J. Auga, B. Isua, K. Molem, M. Manumbor, E. Tamtiai, M. Mogia, and G. D. Weiblen (2007): Low beta diversity of herbivorous insects in tropical forests. Nature 448:692-U698.

Novotny, V., G. D. Weiblen, S. E. Miller, and Y. Basset (2012): The role of paraecologists in 21st century tropical forest research. Pages 154-157 in M. D. Lowman, T. D. Schowalter, and J. F. Franklin, editors. Methods in forest canopy research. University of California Press, Berkeley. PDF

Orsak L (1993): Killing butterflies to save butterflies: A tool for tropical forest conservation in Papua New Guniea. News of the Lepidopterists Society 35: 71-80. 1) PDF

Pfeiffer J, Uril Y (2003): The role of indigenous parataxonomists in botanical inventory: from Herbarium Amboinense to Herbarium Floresense. Telopea 10: 61–72. PDF (457 KB)

Schmeller DS, Arvanitidis C, Böhm M, Brummitt N, Chatzinikolaou E, Costello MJ, Ding H, Gill MJ, Haase P, Julliard R, García-Moreno J, Pettorelli N, Peng C, Riginos C, Schmiedel U, Simaika JP, Waterman C, Wu J, Xu H, Belnap J (2017). Case Studies of Capacity Building for Biodiversity Monitoring. In The GEO Handbook on Biodiversity Observation Networks, Walters M, and Scholes, RJ (eds). Springer International Publishing: Cham; 309-326. PDF

Schmeller DS., Böhm M, Arvanitidis C, Barber-Meyer S, Brummitt N, Chandler M, Chatzinikolaou E, Costello MJ, Ding H, García-Moreno J, Gill M, Haase P, Jones M, Juillard R, Magnusson WE, Martin CS, McGeoch M, Mihoub J-B, Pettorelli N, Proença V, Peng C, Regan E, Schmiedel U, Simaika JP, Weatherdon L, Waterman C, Xu H, Belnap J (2017). Building capacity in biodiversity monitoring at the global scale. Biodiversity and Conservation, 1-26. doi: 10.1007/s10531-017-1388-7. PDF on request

Schmidt L, Domptail S, Klintenberg P, Gruber M, Schmiedel U, Zimmermann I, Falk T (2013): Transdisciplinary research and stakeholder involvement. A review of the TFO approach. Biodiversity & Ecology 5:195–212. PDF (1,1 MB)

Schmiedel U (2006): Capacity development and scientists-land user collaboration towards sustainable management of communal lands in southern Africa - creating initial structures. In: Akhtar-Schuster M, Jürgens N, Fähnders I (eds) Soil and Desertification - Integrated research for the sustainable management of soils in drylands. Proceedings of the International Conference, Hamburg, Germany, 5-6 May 2006, 6 pp. PDF (180 KB)

Schmiedel U (2011): Para-ecologists can support adaptation to climate change. In: Davis CL (ed) Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 92 pp, Pretoria, South Africa, p 74. PDF

Schmiedel, U (2016). Bedeutung der Paraökologen und Parataxonomen für die Biodiversitätsforschung. In Warnsignal Klima: Die Biodiversität, Lozán, J L, Breckle, S-W, Müller, R, and Racho, E (eds). WARNSIGNAL KLIMA: Hamburg, pp 57-60. PDF (300 KB)

Schmiedel U, Araya Y, Bortolotto MI, Boeckenhoff , Hallwachs W, Janzen D, Kolipaka SS, Novotny V, Palm M, Parfondry M, Smanis A, Toko P (2016): Contributions of paraecologists and parataxonomists to research, conservation, and social development. Conservation Biology 30: 506-519.
Free download from journal website
PDF (300 KB)

Schmiedel U, Christiaan RA (2005): An assessment of spider diversity in Soebatsfontein (Northern Cape Province) - A contribution to the understanding of the distribution and ecology of spiders in South Africa. Newsletter of the African Arachnological society 18: 8-9. PDF

Schmiedel U, Kolipaka SS (2017). Involvement of land users in restoration activities: the role of paraecologists in ecological restoration. In COST Action ES1104 Arid Lands Restoration and Combat of Desertification: Setting Up a Drylands and Desert Restoration Hub. Arid Lands Restoration Scientific Fact Sheets: State of the art knowledge in science, successes and case studies in restoration, Kotzen, B. (ed). EU COST ES1104. Fact Sheet 5. PDF

Schmiedel U, Mtuleni VS, Christiaan RA, Isaacks RS, Kotze D, Lot MJ, Mukuya RS, Pieters W, Swartbooi J, Swartbooi S (2010): The BIOTA para-ecologist programme towards capacity development and knowledge exchange. In: Schmiedel U, Jürgens, N. (ed) Biodiversity in southern Africa. Volume 2: Patterns and processes at regional scale. Klaus Hess Publishers, Göttingen & Windhoek, pp 319–325. PDF (1.313 KB)

Shigwedha A (2008): Para-ecologists aim leave development "footprint" in desert. The Namibian, article from 17 April 2008. PDF (116 KB)

Simons C (2011): Uncertain future for tropical ecology. Three premier research outfits are scaling back ambitions - and struggling to maintain local staffs as funds go scarce. Science 332: 298-299. PDF

Takeuchi W, Golman M (2001) Floristic documentation imperatives: Some conclusions from contemporary surveys in Papua New Guinea. Sida 19, 445-468. PDF

Thibault M, Blaney S (2001): Sustainable Human Resources in a Protected Area in Southwestern Gabon. Conservation Biology 15: 591-595. PDF on request

van Jaarsveld, TA (2016): Safe heaven for the creepy crawlies. SANParks Times, December 2016, p 36. PDF (900 KB)

Wade L (2014): COSTA RICA Celebrated biodiversity institute faces financial crisis. Science 346: 1440-1440.

Walters G (2006): Conserving plant diversity in the Massif du Chaillu of Gabon: Linking conservation and parataxonomy - report on parataxonomy training in Waka National Park June 2005-August 2006. PDF


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